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  Indian J Med Microbiol
 

Figure 1: Quantifying spatial intratumor heterogeneity. (a) The current state-of-the-art uses genomics, epigenomics, proteomics, and/or metabolomics to study heterogeneity on either ground up tissue samples or single cells. These approaches do not account for the spatial organization of the tumor microenvironment. (b) We present a method using multiplexed immunofluorescence imaging, which incorporates spatial distribution of biomarkers, in addition to their intensities, to characterize spatial intratumor heterogeneity. As shown in regions 1-4, the spatial organization of biomarker signals varies across the sample. Our method can capture this variation in a whole slide sample and is applicable to single-protein, multiplexed (up to 7 biomarkers), and hyperplexed (>7 biomarkers) immunofluorescence images. Furthermore, our method may be applied beyond the realm of cellular constituents, where we can study spatial interactions between cells and noncellular components (e.g., secretory elements, extracellular matrix)

Figure 1: Quantifying spatial intratumor heterogeneity. (a) The current state-of-the-art uses genomics, epigenomics, proteomics, and/or metabolomics to study heterogeneity on either ground up tissue samples or single cells. These approaches do not account for the spatial organization of the tumor microenvironment. (b) We present a method using multiplexed immunofluorescence imaging, which incorporates spatial distribution of biomarkers, in addition to their intensities, to characterize spatial intratumor heterogeneity. As shown in regions 1-4, the spatial organization of biomarker signals varies across the sample. Our method can capture this variation in a whole slide sample and is applicable to single-protein, multiplexed (up to 7 biomarkers), and hyperplexed (>7 biomarkers) immunofluorescence images. Furthermore, our method may be applied beyond the realm of cellular constituents, where we can study spatial interactions between cells and noncellular components (e.g., secretory elements, extracellular matrix)