Journal of Pathology Informatics Journal of Pathology Informatics
Contact us | Home | Login   |  Users Online: 43  Print this pageEmail this pageSmall font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size 

Year : 2011  |  Volume : 2  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 20

Global manipulation of digital images can lead to variation in cytological diagnosis

Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Modern Dental College and Research Centre, Indore, M.P - 453 112, India

Correspondence Address:
H Prasad
Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Modern Dental College and Research Centre, Indore, M.P - 453 112
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2153-3539.78498

Rights and Permissions

Background: With the adoption of a completely electronic workflow by several journals and the advent of telepathology, digital imaging has become an integral part of every scientific research. However, manipulating digital images is very easy, and it can lead to misinterpretations. Aim: To analyse the impact of manipulating digital images on their diagnosis. Design: Digital images were obtained from Papanicolaou-stained smears of dysplastic and normal oral epithelium. They were manipulated using GNU Image Manipulation Program (GIMP) to alter their brightness and contrast and color levels. A Power Point presentation composed of slides of these manipulated images along with the unaltered originals arranged randomly was created. The presentation was shown to five observers individually who rated the images as normal, mild, moderate or severe dysplasia. Weighted k statistics was used to measure and assess the levels of agreement between observers. Results: Levels of agreement between manipulated images and original images varied greatly among observers. Variation in diagnosis was in the form of overdiagnosis or under-diagnosis, usually by one grade. Conclusion: Global manipulations of digital images of cytological slides can significantly affect their interpretation. Such manipulations should therefore be kept to a minimum, and avoided wherever possible.

Print this article     Email this article
 Next article
 Previous article
 Table of Contents

 Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
 Citation Manager
 Access Statistics
 Reader Comments
 Email Alert *
 Add to My List *
 * Requires registration (Free)

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded425    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 2    

Recommend this journal